IWA RESULTS
Home PageJoin the IWAHandbookSpecial LeaguesChampionsHold ValuesIWA ReportHall of FameArchivesContact Us

QUANTUM PRO LEAGUE

BULLETIN #438 -- FALL 2019

Card 1 -- Held in Mexico City (Attendance: 19,988)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch decked Doctor Evil at 1:59 (European Uppercut) by 122.
SOS: Sloshed Soldier destroyed EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch at 28:44 (Backbreaker) by 1.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson won over HIGHER FLYERS: "Jumpin" Jim Brazil at 28:35 (Walleye Suplex) by 1.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom over The Hot Dog Salesman at 2:28 (Disqualification -- used steel chair).
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom annihilated Stars N Stripes Warrior at 1:42 (Pumphandle Slam) by 111.
EDGE: Steely Dan Severn annihilated IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 15:13 (Dirty Work) by 11 (Guest Referee: IMT/ARMY: Masked Wrestler #1) *** won the Mountain title.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead decked EDGE: Scott Holland Oats at 5:16 (Superplex) by 31.
EDGE: Billy Joel Kidman, Extreme Waffle House Waitress Bertha, and Elton John Cena* pinned IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington*, Oblina, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers at 27:49 (Starting the Fire) by 3.
MAIN EVENT: MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson tied HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne at 4:47 (Double Disqualification).

Card 2 -- Held in Jacksonville (Attendance: 19,887)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch over Handsome Strangler at 0:42 (Count Out).
EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch defeated IMT/ARMY: Big Don G. at 29:31 (Welch's Jam) by 3.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson drew Jimmy "The Body" Janos at 4:25 (Double Disqualification).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead over The Hot Dog Salesman at 4:14 (Disqualification -- used powder).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead defeated Stars N Stripes Warrior at 1:07 (Cross-Armbar) by 109.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom defeated Atomic Assassin at 2:51 (Pumphandle Slam) by 83.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead bested IMT/ARMY: Big Don G. at 27:21 (Superplex) by 4.
IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior, Ickis, and Panty Dropper* won over IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina*, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers at 14:48 (Cross-Armbar) by 12.
MAIN EVENT: SOS: Sloshed Soldier tied HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne at 9:10 (No Contest).

Card 3 -- Held in Bern (Attendance: 9,468)

MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson defeated EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch at 28:33 (Walleye Suplex) by 1.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom over Doctor Evil at 0:31 (Count Out).
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson defeated Jake "The Milkman" Milliman at 27:40 (Walleye Suplex) by 1.
SOS: Sir Kicks-A-Lot decked EDGE: Kelly Killpowski at 28:27 (Stunner) by 3.
IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior beat EDGE: Chip Sansalsa at 8:04 (Stunner) by 31.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead outmuscled Atomic Assassin at 0:22 (Superplex) by 176.
SOS: Amsterdam Nightmare overpowered IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 27:02 (Spinebuster) by 4.
IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior, Ickis, and Panty Dropper* outmuscled IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37*, Evaporated Water Spirit, and Krumm at 28:37 (Stunner) by 2 *** won the Six-man titles.
MAIN EVENT: HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne beat Jake "The Milkman" Milliman at 49:58 (Indian Death Lock) by 1.

Card 4 -- Held in Calgary (Attendance: 5,021)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch pinned The Juicer at 5:35 (Crescent Kick) by 75.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead beat Doctor Evil at 4:09 (Pumphandle Slam) by 122.
EDGE: A.C. Slaughter overpowered MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 28:01 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.
Jimmy "The Body" Janos bested EDGE: Kelly Killpowski at 29:11 (The Body Vice) by 4 *** won the Southern title.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom pinned Toxic Taco Vendor at 2:13 (Pumphandle Slam) by 102.
IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior bested MWC: "The Bad Guy" Jimmy Badd at 28:29 (Stunner) by 2.
SOS: Rasheezy decked IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 23:10 (Backbreaker) by 10.
EDGE: Scott Holland Oats, Randy Savage Garden*, and "Man of 1000 Pants" Nash Britches beat IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers* at 13:14 (Palm Strike) by 12 *** won the TV Six-man titles.
MAIN EVENT: HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne decked IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 52:41 (Indian Death Lock) by 3.

Card 5 -- Held in Chicago (Attendance: 16,142)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch overpowered The Hot Dog Salesman at 5:43 (Crescent Kick) by 81.
MWC: The Rockin' Redneck destroyed IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 24:11 (Redneck Neckbreaker) by 6 *** won the Dixie title.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson annihilated MWC: "The Bad Guy" Jimmy Badd at 27:32 (Walleye Suplex) by 2.
SOS: Librarian Willie B. Quiet decked EDGE: Kelly Killpowski at 24:59 (Backbreaker) by 7 (non-title).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead decked Toxic Taco Vendor at 1:28 (Cross-Armbar) by 100.
IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior defeated EDGE: Elton John Cena at 27:48 (Stunner) by 2.
SOS: Sloshed Soldier tied EDGE: Randy Savage Garden at 7:39 (No Contest).
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37*, Evaporated Water Spirit, and Krumm won over IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina*, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers at 23:02 (Chickenwing) by 9 (Six-man title).
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter overpowered HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne at 51:17 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.

Card 6 -- Held in Boston (Attendance: 12,486)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch won over Quick Rick Corvette at 4:46 (Crescent Kick) by 79.
MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard tied MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 8:31 (Double Count Out).
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson tied IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior at 8:37 (No Contest).
HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne pinned DM: A at 2:32 (Savate Kick) by 88 (non-title).
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom defeated Sgt. Sludge at 6:37 (Pumphandle Slam) by 79.
SOS: Mr. Stroke of Death pinned IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior at 29:55 (Backbreaker) by 1 *** won the Prairie title.
MWC: "Mean" Mike Enos and Wayne "the Train" Bloom* bested SOS: Punch Rebel* and The Ohio Copperhead at 28:21 (Mean Bomb) by 4.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter won over IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 49:37 (Slayed by the Bell) by 10.

Card 7 -- Held in Baton Rouge (Attendance: 13,621)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch overpowered Stars N Stripes Warrior at 3:51 (Crescent Kick) by 111.
MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard drew EDGE: Worst Canadian Mooserider Hockey 11th at 5:50 (Double Disqualification).
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson tied SOS: The Ohio Copperhead (Time Limit).
Jake "The Milkman" Milliman annihilated EDGE: Leech Powers at 27:29 (Milkman Express) by 3.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead pinned Sgt. Sludge at 5:33 (Cross-Armbar) by 77.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom overpowered Big Tough Dude at 2:47 (Pumphandle Slam) by 92.
MWC: "Mean" Mike Enos and Wayne "the Train" Bloom* decked HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne* and "Jumpin" Jim Brazil at 28:20 (Mean Bomb) by 4 *** won the Tag-team titles.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter defeated MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard at 31:58 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.

Card 8 -- Held in Utica (Attendance: 11,849)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch overpowered Toxic Taco Vendor at 0:47 (Crescent Kick) by 102.
MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard decked EDGE: Billy Joel Kidman at 8:42 (CB Breaker) by 32.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson annihilated DM: A at 1:37 (Chickenwing) by 90 (non-title).
MWC: The Scramblin' Hillbilly pinned SOS: Sloshed Soldier at 28:22 (Hillybilly Deluxe) by 2 *** won the Atlantic title.
EDGE: Worst Canadian Mooserider Poutine 10th tied SOS: The Ohio Copperhead (Time Limit).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead over Big Tough Dude at 9:37 (Count Out).
SOS: The Notorious W.M.D.* and Omega Man destroyed SOS: Punch Rebel* and The Ohio Copperhead at 28:32 (Backbreaker) by 4 *** won the TV Tag-team titles.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter pinned MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 45:09 (Slayed by the Bell) by 6.

Card 9 -- Held in Lisbon (Attendance: 8,287)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch decked Sgt. Sludge at 3:56 (Rib Breaker) by 108.
SOS: The Notorious W.M.D. beat MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard at 22:50 (Pumphandle Slam) by 9 *** won the Northern title.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson destroyed IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 28:19 (Walleye Suplex) by 3.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom destroyed Quick Rick Corvette at 2:57 (Pumphandle Slam) by 79.
SOS: Sloshed Soldier pinned EDGE: Poodle Percival Payne at 27:09 (Backbreaker) by 1.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom overpowered The Giant Muscle Man at 2:11 (Pumphandle Slam) by 102.
HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne and "Jumpin" Jim Brazil drew SOS: Punch Rebel and The Ohio Copperhead at 7:29 (Double Disqualification) (Tag-team title).
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter outmuscled IMT/ARMY: Fury Warrior at 56:33 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.

Card 10 -- Held in Greensboro (Attendance: 13,027)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch pinned Sundog Rex at 4:43 (Rib Breaker) by 105.
MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard drew IMT/ARMY: Panty Dropper at 3:11 (No Contest).
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson drew IMT/ARMY: Panty Dropper at 4:52 (No Contest).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead outmuscled Quick Rick Corvette at 2:47 (Cobra Clutch) by 145.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom bested Sundog Rex at 2:23 (Cobra Clutch) by 148.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead decked The Giant Muscle Man at 2:06 (Savate Kick) by 141.
EDGE: Leech Powers* and RKO Speedwagon bested HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne* and "Jumpin" Jim Brazil at 27:06 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter bested EDGE: Kelly Killpowski at 40:23 (Slayed by the Bell) by 6.

Card 11 -- Held in Boise (Attendance: 20,000)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch outmuscled Sundog Spike at 2:13 (Welch's Jam) by 149.
MWC: Commissioner's Bodyguard decked IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37 at 21:49 (CB Breaker) by 6.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson decked SOS: Spiz Norka at 28:25 (Walleye Suplex) by 2.
SOS: Sloshed Soldier overpowered HIGHER FLYERS: "Jumpin" Jim Brazil at 27:18 (Backbreaker) by 1.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead outmuscled Sundog Rex at 2:26 (Rib Breaker) by 102.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom annihilated Hot Stuff Billy Kool at 2:18 (Palm Strike) by 105.
SOS: The Notorious W.M.D.* and Omega Man annihilated HIGHER FLYERS: Graig Gagne and "Jumpin" Jim Brazil* at 29:06 (Backbreaker) by 4.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter decked SOS: The Ohio Copperhead at 42:15 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.

Card 12 -- Held in St. Louis (Attendance: 8,211)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch over Sundog Spot at 2:15 (Count Out).
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom overpowered Handsome Strangler at 6:57 (Pumphandle Slam) by 73.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson tied SOS: Sloshed Soldier at 3:45 (No Contest).
EDGE: RKO Speedwagon drew IMT/ARMY: Ickis (Time Limit).
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom over Sundog Spike at 6:06 (Disqualification -- used belt to hit opponent).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead bested Hot Stuff Billy Kool at 2:08 (Crescent Kick) by 100.
MWC: The Rockin' Redneck, The Scramblin' Hillbilly, and Jimmy "The Body" Janos* pinned IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers* at 29:44 (Redneck Neckbreaker) by 2.
MAIN EVENT: EDGE: A.C. Slaughter won over MWC: "The Bad Guy" Jimmy Badd at 57:38 (Slayed by the Bell) by 4.

Card 13 -- Held in Garden City (Attendance: 12,539)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch over Adam Bomb at 2:26 (Disqualification -- hit opponent with microphone).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead annihilated Handsome Strangler at 7:35 (Cross-Armbar) by 71.
SOS: Rasheezy pinned MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 27:58 (Backbreaker) by 2 *** won the TV title.
Jimmy "The Body" Janos drew SOS: The Ohio Copperhead at 4:38 (No Contest).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead destroyed Sundog Spike at 0:41 (Superplex) by 150.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom beat Big Bob the Carpet Kingpin at 2:55 (Palm Strike) by 81.
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit, and Krumm* annihilated MWC: The Rockin' Redneck*, The Scramblin' Hillbilly, and Jimmy "The Body" Janos at 24:59 (Backbreaker) by 7.
MAIN EVENT: SOS: Librarian Willie B. Quiet defeated EDGE: A.C. Slaughter at 35:40 (Backbreaker) by 1.

Card 14 -- Held in Boulder (Attendance: 8,156)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch decked Mr. Slim Fast Plan at 2:01 (Crescent Kick) by 77.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson beat MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 29:08 (Walleye Suplex) by 4.
SOS: Mr. Stroke of Death overpowered MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 28:35 (Backbreaker) by 1.
IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington outmuscled EDGE: The Hockmaster at 15:11 (Backbreaker) by 24.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom destroyed Sundog Spot at 3:41 (Palm Strike) by 103.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom pinned DM: A at 1:43 (Pumphandle Slam) by 94.
MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle, "The Hot Shot" Tommy Hott, and "The Bad Guy" Jimmy Badd* annihilated IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers* at 28:48 (Who's the Boss?) by 4.
MAIN EVENT: SOS: Librarian Willie B. Quiet pinned EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch at 48:39 (Backbreaker) by 4.

Card 15 -- Held in Cape Town (Attendance: 11,365)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch pinned Atomic Assassin at 1:07 (Welch's Jam) by 175.
EDGE: Murder Chef Bobby Slay bested MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 28:46 (Can't Beat Slay) by 2.
SOS: Librarian Willie B. Quiet overpowered MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 29:24 (Backbreaker) by 3 (non-title).
Jake "The Milkman" Milliman bested EDGE: Lark Martin at 9:38 (Milkman Express) by 28.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead bested Sundog Spot at 3:23 (Crescent Kick) by 98.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom pinned IMT/ARMY: Big Don G. at 27:41 (Crazy Train) by 5.
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit*, and Krumm won over MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle*, "The Hot Shot" Tommy Hott, and "The Bad Guy" Jimmy Badd at 28:51 (Backbreaker) by 5.
MAIN EVENT: SOS: Librarian Willie B. Quiet annihilated HIGHER FLYERS: "Jumpin" Jim Brazil at 36:06 (Backbreaker) by 4.

Card 16 -- Held in Oakland (Attendance: 13,234)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch bested Big Tough Dude at 1:58 (Crescent Kick) by 92.
EDGE: Extreme Waffle House Waitress Bertha decked MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 28:48 (Chunked and Diced) by 4.
MWC: "Mean" Mike Enos won over IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 29:50 (Mean Bomb) by 5.
SOS: Declan Xavier defeated Jake "The Milkman" Milliman at 29:02 (Sleeper) by 1 *** won the Central title.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom destroyed Adam Bomb at 3:43 (Pumphandle Slam) by 76.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead beat Big Bob the Carpet Kingpin at 5:57 (Crescent Kick) by 76.
SOS: Sir Kicks-A-Lot, Amsterdam Nightmare*, and Declan Xavier pinned IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington, Oblina, and "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers* at 18:12 (Flying Dropkick) by 9.

Card 17 -- Held in Nice (Attendance: 5,911)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch won over The Giant Muscle Man at 0:43 (Savate Kick) by 144.
SOS: Omega Man defeated MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 19:20 (Superplex) by 6 *** won the Pacific title.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom outmuscled The Juicer at 2:11 (Cobra Clutch) by 139.
Jake "The Milkman" Milliman drew EDGE: "Man of 1000 Pants" Nash Britches at 27:17 (Double Count Out).
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead won over Adam Bomb at 4:03 (Cross-Armbar) by 74.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead overpowered IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 16:06 (Superplex) by 8.
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit, and Krumm* outmuscled SOS: Sir Kicks-A-Lot*, Amsterdam Nightmare, and Declan Xavier at 29:55 (Backbreaker) by 5.

Card 18 -- Held in Brideshead (Attendance: 10,180)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch won over Hot Stuff Billy Kool at 2:54 (Rib Breaker) by 130.
IMT/ARMY: Evaporated Water Spirit overpowered MWC: Commissioner Lenny Finkle at 29:58 (Stunner) by 2.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead annihilated The Juicer at 1:21 (Cobra Clutch) by 138.
EDGE: A.C. Slaughter annihilated MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom at 27:40 (Slayed by the Bell) by 1.
EDGE: Quail Earnhardt beat IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 28:52 (Intimidator) by 5.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead won over DM: A at 3:52 (Cross-Armbar) by 92.
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit*, and Krumm destroyed EDGE: The Hockmaster*, Worst Canadian Mooserider Hockey 11th, and Murder Chef Bobby Slay at 19:53 (Backbreaker) by 6.

Card 19 -- Held in Los Angeles (Attendance: 13,105)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch defeated Big Bob the Carpet Kingpin at 6:17 (Headbutt) by 79.
MWC: "Mean" Mike Enos decked MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson at 27:38 (Mean Bomb) by 2.
MWC: "The Hot Shot" Tommy Hott overpowered IMT/ARMY: Donald G. Swervington at 24:15 (Too Hott!) by 8.
EDGE: A.C. Slaughter bested SOS: Spiz Norka at 29:03 (Slayed by the Bell) by 4.
MWC: Wayne "the Train" Bloom overpowered Mr. Slim Fast Plan at 1:51 (Pumphandle Slam) by 77.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead drew IMT/ARMY: Oblina at 8:00 (Double Count Out).
EDGE: Chip Sansalsa*, Worst Canadian Mooserider Poutine 10th, and Poodle Percival Payne decked IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit, and Krumm* at 29:31 (When I Dip You Dip) by 2.

Card 20 -- Held in Brussels (Attendance: 12,307)

EDGE: Brutal Brian Welch pinned DM: A at 4:14 (Crescent Kick) by 94.
MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson destroyed EDGE: Kelly Killpowski at 27:10 (Walleye Suplex) by 4.
SOS: Punch Rebel overpowered IMT/ARMY: Ickis at 28:43 (Backbreaker) by 2.
EDGE: A.C. Slaughter defeated IMT/ARMY: Krumm at 27:46 (Slayed by the Bell) by 2.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead bested Mr. Slim Fast Plan at 1:33 (Cross-Armbar) by 75.
SOS: The Ohio Copperhead drew IMT/ARMY: "Idaho Guy" Jeff Chambers at 1:53 (Double Disqualification).
IMT/ARMY: Jeff Wrestler #37, Evaporated Water Spirit*, and Krumm bested EDGE: Lark Martin, Quail Earnhardt, and Steely Dan Severn* at 19:38 (Backbreaker) by 8.

Battle Royal -- Held in Assisi (Attendance: 17,639)

MWC: "Mr. Minnesota" Olaf Gustavson won the battle royal and its $30,000 prize.

Home PageJoin the IWAHandbookSpecial LeaguesChampionsHold ValuesIWA ReportHall of FameArchivesContact Us
Entire site contents copyright 2019 Worlds Unlimited, Inc. All rights reserved.